Only two Republicans, Pat Saiki and Charles Djou, have been elected to the U.S. House. A former state legislator, Saiki served two terms before running unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate in 1990 and governor in 1994. Djou won the May 22, 2010, special election for the 1st Congressional District.
Only one Republican, Hiram Fong, has represented the state in the U.S. Senate.
Although a party system developed following the 1887 Bayonet Constitution that took power away from the Hawaiian monarchy, political parties in Hawaii first became dominant when Hawaii was a territory (1900-1959). During that time, Republicans dominated the Legislature through groups such as the Missionary Party, which was formed by the descendants of Protestant missionaries from New England who first arrived in the early 19th century. Republicans at the time largely represented business interests and the ruling elite of white men. Some members were instrumental in the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy. Democrats took over control of the Legislature in 1954.