When sea level rises, a new legal opinion says, public land follows the shoreline and the state can charge property owners to access their own places.
The risks posed by the state’s 88,000 remaining cesspools will likely be amplified by climate change.
New research shows non-native species can survive years at sea on buoys, nets, lost boats and trash before reaching distant shorelines.
Opponents of taking the money question whether the county needs its own plan. One said the work should be left to the federal government.
Climate change is heating the ocean and causing stronger and longer coral bleaching events at Hanauma Bay.
Scenarios vary widely, but experts say planners shouldn’t ignore the high-end possibilities.
State and federal officials are working to clean up leaking fuel, heavy equipment and other debris spilled into the water at Kure Atoll.