Kā ka luna hoʻoponopono nota: Unuhi ʻia na Ākea Kahikina. Click here to read this article in English.

Ua noho akula nā lawaiʻa ma kapakai no ka hopu ʻana i nā ʻamaʻama, a ʻo ka hākui ʻia akula nō ia o nā iʻa na ka ʻaina ahiahi. Akā, ma kēia mau lā, ʻaʻole kamaʻāina ka hapanui o nā keiki i ka ʻono o ka ʻamaʻama a me ka hiʻona o ka iʻa kū. 

Ka Ulana Pilina Badge Olelo Hawaii

No nā kekeke ʻelua i hala aku nei, e emi iho ana ka nui ʻamaʻama ma Hawaiʻi, a ua hoʻopilikia kēia i ka moʻomeheu a me nā hana kuʻuna a me ke kaulike kūlohelohe o ke kaiaola kai. 

ʻElua papahana hou o ʻoneʻi e hoʻonui aʻe ana i ka nui ʻamaʻama. ʻO ko ke Kula ʻo Kamehameha Kumuola Marine Science Education Center ma Hilo a me kahi hui ʻaelike a Hawaii Sea Grant a me Waikalua Loko ma Kāneʻohe, ʻo ia nā mea e hoʻomau ana i ka hana mahiiʻa a me ka hana loko iʻa he mau kekeke, akā aia nō ko lākou lanakila i ke ʻano a lākou ke hoʻoponopono aku ai i nā hihia i pili i ka ʻāina a me ka nohona kanaka, mai ka hoʻohuli aniau a hiki i ka lako kālā. 

Mahi ʻia ka ʻamaʻama ma ka loko ʻo Waka me ka nānā ʻana a Seaside Restaurant ma Hilo.  Grace Cajski/Civil Beat/2022

ʻO ka ʻamaʻama, he keu ia a ke koʻikoʻi i ka moʻomeheu, ka mea ʻai, a me ke kaiaola, no laila, ua nui nā huaʻōlelo Hawaiʻi i pili i kēia iʻa: ʻo ka pua ʻama ke keiki, a ʻo ka ʻamaʻama ka makua. Ke hiki i ka iʻa ke hānau, he ʻanae ka iʻa, a ke kū ka iʻa, he ʻanae holo ka iʻa. 

Ua nānā nā Kānaka Maoli kahiko i ka pua iʻa o ka ʻanae ma kai ma ke kau hoʻoilo. Ua nānā ʻia ka pua liʻiliʻi e ʻauʻau ana i ka nuku kapakai no ka ʻai ʻana i ka ʻōlaula kāʻamakai a me ka limu. Ke hala ʻelua makahiki, ʻauʻau ka pua ama i kai no ka pua iʻa ʻana. 

ʻO kēia mau kānaka i nānā akula, na lākou nō i kūkulu i ka loko iʻa e makepono ai ke kanaka. ʻO ke kuapā o ka loko, ʻo ia ke kau palena i ka nuku waiwai, a ʻo ka mākāhā, hiki i ka pua ʻama ke komo, a ʻaʻole hiki i ka ʻamaʻama ke haʻalele. I kekahi mau manawa, lawe aku nā kiaʻi loko i ka pua ʻama i nā loko liʻiliʻi i hoʻopalekana ʻia, a ʻo ka loko pua ka inoa. 

Ma muli o ke ʻano o ke kūkulu ʻana, ua hiki i nā kiaʻi loko ke lawaiʻa i ka ʻamaʻama me ka maʻalahi, a ʻo ko lākou hānai akula nō ia i nā ʻohana. Eia naʻe, ʻaʻole pēlā ke ʻano ma kēia wā. 

Ma ka wā i ola pono ai ka ʻāina, ua nui ka ʻamaʻama a lako nā loko iʻa. Ma ka makahiki 1900, ua hopu ka lawaiʻa lehulehu i ka ʻamaʻama he 700,000 paona a ʻoi. 

“Ua kohu lākou me nā ao pōpolohua ma kai.” — Fred Takebayashi

Ma nā makahiki 1940, hiki iā Fred Takebayashi ke lawaiʻa i ka pua ʻama he 10,000 ma kahi hapalua o ka lā, a ua hānai ʻia ʻo ia ma ka loko iʻa ʻo Mikiola ma ke awa o Kāneʻohe. 

“Ua kohu lākou me nā ao pōpolohua ma kai,” wahi āna. 

ʻO George Uyemura, ʻo ia ke kiaʻi loko kahiko o ka loko ʻo Mōliʻi, a aia nō ia loko i ʻākau pono o kahi a Takebayashi i hana aku ai, a mau nō kona lohe ʻana i ke kapauʻu o ka ʻanae e lele ana mai ka ʻilikai aʻe. 

ʻO ke kūkulu hale ka i hoʻopilikia i nā kīpuka ʻamaʻama, a pau pū me nā lāʻau haole, e laʻa ke kukunaokalā a me ka mauʻu Kaleponi. A ʻo nā poʻiiʻa haole, e laʻa ka toʻau (ke koaʻe ʻulaʻula) a me ka roi (he peacock grouper), na lākou e ʻai i ka ʻamaʻama. 

Ma ka makahiki 1950, ua hopu ʻia ka ʻamaʻama he 40,000 paona a emi ma Hawaiʻi. A laila, ua naʻi kekahi lāhulu ʻanae ʻē aʻe. 

ʻO ke kanda, ua kohu loa ia me ka ʻamaʻama, a pua iʻa kēia iʻa ma ka makahiki holoʻokoʻa, a ʻoi ka wikiwiki o kona oʻo ʻana ma mua o ka ʻamaʻama. Ua ʻoi aku kona liʻiliʻi kekahi, no laila, hoʻokūkū lāua ʻo ka ʻamaʻama ma ka ʻai ʻana i nā meaola liʻiliʻi ma ka papa kai. 

Ma ka makahiki 2019, ua emi ka nui ʻamaʻama i hopu ʻia i kēlā me kēia makahiki i 1,600 paona, a i kēia lā, ʻo ka ʻamaʻama he 20% o nā ʻanae ma ko Oʻahu mau loko iʻa. 

Ke hoʻāʻo nei nā mahiiʻa e hoʻololi i kēlā. 

Ka Hou Hōmona

Ua hoʻomaka ka mahi ʻamaʻama ma nā makahiki 1960 ma Oceanic Institute, ʻo ia kahi pono lako noiʻi e pili nei iā Hawaiʻi Pacific University. Ma kēlā wā, ʻaʻole i maopopo i nā mahiiʻa ka hana e pua ai ka ʻamaʻama a me ka hana e hānai pono ʻia ai nā pua i hānau ʻia maila. 

“Ua ulu ka pua a hiki i kahi pae kikoʻī, a laila, ua kū ka ulu ʻana,” wahi a Vernon Sato, he mea noiʻi limu, he mahiiʻa, a he hoa kūkākūkā no nā loko iʻa. 

Research at Waikalua Loko will help determine the future of striped mullet in its waters.
ʻO ka noiʻi ma ka loko ʻo Waikalua, ʻo ia ka mea e hōʻike ʻia ai ka hopena o ka ʻamaʻama ma kai.  Wende Nishimoto/Civil Beat/2022

Ma laila nō i hoʻomaka aku ai ʻo Oceanic Institute i ka hoʻohana ʻia ʻana o nā hōmona no ka hoʻomakua ʻana i nā iʻa i ka pae oʻo loa, wahi āna. 

Ua hoʻāʻo nā mahiiʻa i ka hou ʻana i ka iʻa me nā hōmona kāmano a me nā hōmona iʻa ʻulaʻula uli e pua iʻa ai lākou, a ua holo pono ma kekahi mau manawa, akā ʻaʻole i hiki iā lākou ke hoʻomaopopo leʻa i ka nui hōmona kūpono a me ka wā kūpono. ʻO ka ʻike ʻepekema hou ma nā makahiki 1970, ʻo ia kai kōkua iā lākou e lanakila ma kēia mau hihia, a ua pua iʻa pono ka ʻamaʻama. Ua hānai ʻo Oceanic Institute i ka pua ʻama, a hiki i ka nā mahiiʻa ke mahi i ka ʻamaʻama i nā wahi a pau i makemake ʻia. 

Akā, ma kēlā wā, ua nui ʻino ka nele o ka ʻamaʻama ʻole. Ua hoʻokaʻawale ka mokuʻāina i ke kālā no Oceanic Institute a me kona haku ʻana i polokalamu hoʻonui i ka nui ʻamaʻama. Ma waena o Iune o ka makahiki 1990 a me ʻAukake o ka makahiki 1993, ua hoʻokuʻu ka polokalamu mokuʻāina i nā pua ʻama he 245,000 ma ke awa o Kāneʻohe. 

Ua hoʻokumu ka Division of Aquatic Resources iā Mullet Stock Enhancement Program ma Hilo i ka makahiki 1998, a ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka ʻamaʻama no ʻelua makahiki, akā ua pau ke kālā ma ka makahiki 2001. 

ʻPua Boot Camp’

Ma ka holo pono ʻana o ka pōʻaiapuni ola o ka ʻamaʻama a me ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana o nā mahiiʻa, hiki i nā iʻa i mahi ʻia ke ola ma ka nohona ʻāhiu, ua ulu aʻe ka hoi o nā kiaʻi loko i ka lawe ʻia ʻana mai o nā ʻamaʻama i ko lākou mau loko iʻa. Akā, ua holo pono ʻole nā hoʻāʻo a pau no ka mahi ʻamaʻama ʻana ma nā loko iʻa. 

“Ua keu kēlā iʻa a ka lahilahi a me ka hūpō, a ua maʻalahi kona hahai ʻia ʻana,” wahi a Keliʻi Kotubetey, he hope luna hoʻokō ma ka loko o Heʻeia ma Oʻahu. 

ʻO Kai Fox, ʻo ia ka laekahi kōkua mahiʻiʻa ma Hawaii Sea Grant, a wahi āna, ʻaʻole lawa ke oʻo o ka pua. Ua aʻo maila ʻo Fox, he pono “kahi ʻē aʻe e oʻo pono ai ka iʻa” — ʻo ia hoʻi kahi loko pua. 

“ʻO kēia papahana, he hōʻailona ia no nā papahana he nui ma ka wā ma mua,” wahi a Fox. 

Ke kūkulu nei ka loko ʻo Waikalua lāua ʻo Hawaii Sea Grant i kahi loko e nui aʻe ai nā pua.  Grace Cajski/Civil Beat/2022

I kēlā Kepakemapa aku nei, ua hana pū ʻo Hawaii Sea Grant me ka loko ʻo Waikalua, ʻo ia hoʻi ka loko he 12 ʻeka ma ke awa o Kāneʻohe, no ke kūkulu ʻana i pono lako mahiiʻa ma ka ʻāina no ka mālama ʻana i nā iʻa i mahi ʻia. Ua kapa lākou i kēia loko pua ʻo “Pua Boot Camp.” Ma loko o ka loko, hiki ke nui ka pua ʻama a hoʻomaʻamaʻa i ka nui o ka paʻakai a me ke koʻohune ma ka loko. 

Ua kuhi ʻia ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ka pua boot camp ma ka makahiki 2023 ma lalo o Oceanic Institute. Ma kēia wā, e mahi ʻia ana ka nenue, ʻo ia hoʻi he iʻa ʻāhinahina ʻōiwi e kū iʻa ana, a no Ocean Era ka ʻia, ʻo ia hoʻi kahi e hoʻohānau iʻa ma Kona. A, no ke kai lepo ma nā pahu iʻa, e kahe ana nō ia i nā pahu ʻē aʻe no ka mahi limu ʻana, a kahe ana ke kai lepo mai laila mai i nā pahu e noho ai nā ʻōlepe ʻōiwi a me nā loli. 

Ke nui ka pua ʻama a 6 ʻīniha ka lōʻihi, hiki nō ia ke hoʻokomo ʻia i ka loko iʻa. E hoʻokuʻu ʻo Fox i kekahi i ka loko ʻo Waikalua, a e hāʻawi ʻia ke koena i nā loko iʻa ʻē aʻe. 

ʻO Pacific American Foundation, ʻo ia ka hui hoʻopuka waiwai ʻole e mālama ana i ka loko, a na lākou e kūʻai aku i ka limu a me ka loli e mau ai kona kūlana hoʻokele waiwai. Lana ka manaʻo o ka hui, na ka pua boot camp e hōʻoi, e hoʻōla, a e hoʻomau i nā loko iʻa a me ko Hawaiʻi kaiaola me ka lilo ʻana i hālāwai e hālāwai pū ai ka ʻike ʻōiwi, ka ʻepekema a me ka ʻenehana kūikawā. 

Ma nā makahiki mua loa he 25 e kiaʻi ai ka hui i ka loko ʻo Waikalua, ʻo ka mea nui ka hana e hoʻihoʻi ʻia ai ke kūlana mua o ia wahi. Ma nā makahiki he 25 e hiki mai ana, e mahi ʻia nā iʻa, wahi a Herb Lee, ʻo ia ka CEO no Pacific American Foundation. 

“ʻO ka mahi ʻana ka pahuhopu maoli o nā loko, akā ʻaʻole hiki i nā loko iʻa i koe ke hoʻokō i kēia pahuhopu maoli,” wahi āna. “No ke aha? He haʻina maʻalahi ko laila. Ua loli nō ke kaiaola.”

Pālua Ka Makani

Na ka pā ʻoihana hoʻokipa malihini a me ke kūkulu hale i hoʻololi akula i ko Oʻahu kaiaola, a ʻaʻole nui nā pua ʻama e komo ana i nā loko iʻa i koe. ʻAʻole pēlā ka hana ma nā wahi ʻē aʻe ma ka mokuʻāina. 

ʻAno nui ka nui ʻamaʻama ma Hawaiʻi. ʻO nā loko iʻa ma Hilo — e laʻa nā loko ʻo Waka (ke mālama ʻia nei e Seaside Restaurant), ʻo Hale o Lono (ke mālama ʻia nei e ka Edith Kanakaʻole Foundation), ʻo Honokea (ke mālama ʻia nei e Hui Hoʻoleimaluō), a me Waiāhole me Kapalaho (ke mālama ʻia nei e Kumola Marine Science Education Center a ke Kula ʻo Kamehameha) — hiki pū i kēia mau loko iʻa ke hōʻumeʻume i ka ʻamaʻama me ka maʻalahi. 

Akā, ke loli mai nei ka moku o Keawe. 

“Ua ʻōʻili maila nā AirBnB, a ua hiki a noho nā kānaka,” wahi a Kamala Anthony, ʻo ia ka i hoʻokumu i ka hui hoʻopuka waiwai ʻole ʻo Hui Hoʻoleimaluō ma Keaukaha. “Na ke kūkulu hale hou ʻana e hoʻopilikia nei i ka ʻōnaepuni kahiko a nāna hoʻi e hōʻihi ʻole nei i ka hiki ʻana o ka ʻāina kūlohelohe.”

ʻOhiʻohi ʻo Kumuola Marine Education Center i nā pua i kokoke i ka mākāhā, a hoʻohana ʻia ka hōʻike ana ōewe no ka hoʻomaopopo leʻa ʻana i ke ʻano pololei o ka iʻa, inā he pua ʻama a i ʻole he pua kanaka.  Grace Cajski/Civil Beat/2022

ʻŌlelo ʻo ia, ua mō ka piko ma o ka hala ʻana o ka wā a me ka haʻalele ʻana o ka poʻe, a ʻo ka nele akula nō ia o ke kanaka ʻole e kiaʻi ana i nā loko iʻa. 

I nui ka hoʻokipa malihini a me ka nui kanaka, e nui pū aʻe ana ke kūkulu hale ʻana — a ʻo ia ka i hoʻēmi a hoʻohaumia i ka nui o nā nuku. Ua hoʻopilikia ʻia nā hui mahiiʻa kekahi. 

“Ma nā wahi e mahuʻi ʻia ai ka lawaiʻa maʻalahi, he kākaʻikahi ka hopu ʻia ʻana o hoʻokahi iʻa,” wahi a Troy Sakihara, ʻo ia he mea kālaimeaola kai no ka Division of Aquatic Resources. 

Mai ka makahiki 2019 i hoʻomaka ʻia ai ka hoʻopalapala ʻikepili, ʻo kēia makahiki nō ka ʻoi o ka maikaʻi ʻole no ka hōʻumeʻume ʻamaʻama ma Kumuola. Ua komo maila ka pua he 234 i ka loko, a ua komo he 2,839 pua ma ka makahiki 2020. 

I loko nō o ka pōkole o ka wā e kākau ʻia ai ka ʻikepili, he hoʻohopohopo ka ihona he 88% ma ka hōʻumeʻume iʻa no nā mea kālaimeaola. “ʻO kēia nō he hopena nui,” wahi a Luke Mead, ʻo ia ka luna no Kumuola. 

Ua haku ʻo Kumuola i kahi hana e barcode ʻia ai ke ōewe no ka ʻike ʻana i ke kūlana o ka iʻa he ʻōiwi a he haole. Ua hōʻike ʻia, ma kēlā me kēia hui pua he ʻewalu, hoʻokahi pua ka ʻamaʻama. He kanda ke koena. He hoʻopūʻiwa nō paha kēia helu, akā, hiki nō ia ke kōkua i nā loko iʻa ma ke kūkulu hou ʻana i ka waihona ʻike e pono ai ka hoʻomaopopo leʻa ʻana a me ka hoʻopulapula hou ʻana i nā kumu waiwau ma ka loko iʻa, a hiki pū hoʻi ia mea ke hōʻike i nā hehi hou ma ka mahi ʻana i ka ʻamaʻama. 

Aia ka nui ʻamaʻama ma o ka pae ʻāina i ka nui o ka hoʻohuli aniau. Mahuʻi nā mea noiʻi, e piʻi ana ke kai he hapa kapuaʻi ma ka makahiki 2030 a he ʻekolu kapuaʻi ma ka makahiki 2100. Inā pēlā, e piholo ana ka hapanui o nā kuapā, a e hoʻopilikia ʻia ka mahi ʻamaʻama ʻana e kū kokoke i kai. 

Ua hoʻolaha ʻē nā mahi iʻa i nā pōpilika i pili i ka hoʻohuli aniau. 

ʻO Ron Weidenback, ʻo ia ka ʻona o Hawaii Fish Company ma Waialua, Oʻahu, a ua ʻike ʻo ia i ka pā lohi ʻana o ka Moaʻe. I nele ka makani ʻole, e nele ana ka ʻokikene ʻole ma ke kai, a e hoʻopilikia ʻia ana ka iʻa. 

Ma ka makahiki 2016, ma ka loko ʻo Waikalua ma ke awa o Kāneʻohe, ua hoʻolaha ʻia ka make loa ʻana o kahi limu ma muli o ka loli ʻana o ka mehana kai. Ma kēlā makahiki like, ua piʻi mai ke kai nui a pā i ka loko iʻa. 

A, ua hele a kuluma nā nalu nui i pili i nā kai nui loa. Ma Hilo, ua ʻike ʻo Luke Mead i nā kai nui loa ma ke kauwela, ka nele ʻana o ka ua ʻole a me ka nui ʻana aʻe o ke anilā ʻino. 

ʻAʻole mōakāka ka hopena o ka ʻanae ma Hawaiʻi, akā wahi a Mead, he manaʻolana ko laila. 

“ʻO ko mākou kuleana ka hōʻoi ʻana, ka haku ʻana, a me ka mālama ʻana i nā ʻōnaehana a me nā pilina” wahi āna. “Hana pono mākou. Hana mākou i ka mea i hiki.”

Ua kākoʻo ʻia ke kūkala ʻia ʻana o kēia moʻolelo e ka Pulitzer Center. 

Ua uku hapa ʻia ʻo “Hawaii Grown” e nā makana kālā maiā Stupski Foundation, Ulupono Fund ma ka Hawaii Community Foundation a me ka Frost Family Foundation.

Ua kākoʻo ʻia kēia papahana e ka ʻOhana o Harry Nathaniel, Levani Lipton, ka ʻOhana Mar, a me Lisa Kleissner.

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