Kā ka luna hoʻoponopono nota: Unuhi ʻia na Ākea Kahikina. Click here to read this article in English.

Ua hoʻopuka ʻia kēia moʻolelo ma ke ʻano he māhele ia o ka hana pū ʻana me ka Center for Public Integrity, Columbia Journalism Investigations a me Type Investigations.

MA KAUNAKAKAI, Molokaʻi — Ma ko Bridget Mowat neʻe ʻana i Molokaʻi mai Maui mai ma ka makahiki 1976, he one ko laila e noho ana me he palena lā ma waena o kona home a me ke kai. 

Ka Ulana Pilina Badge Olelo Hawaii

Ma nā makahiki ma hope, ua emi nui iho ke kahakai. E ale aku ana nō paha ke kai i ko Mowat home ma Kapaʻakea ma ko Molokaʻi kapa kai hema, a he kūkulu ia i kūkulu ʻia ma ma ka ʻāina hoʻokūʻonoʻono Hawaiʻi a kona mau mākuahūnōai i noho mua ai. Wahi āna, ua hoʻopaʻa kona ʻohana i ka palapala hoʻolimalima hale i ka ʻāina ma ka hopena o ke kekeke 193o, a ke noho nei nā hanauna he ʻelima ma ka ʻāina he ʻeono ʻeka i hoʻohana mua ʻia no ka mahi pipi. 

“E lawe ʻia aku ana ke one. E lawe ʻia aku ana ka ʻāina. He mau lāʻau niu ko ke kai,” wahi a Mowat, a kapa ʻia ʻo ia ʻo ʻAnakē Bridget e ka hapanui o nā kānaka. 

Makemake ʻo ia e neʻe i uka ma mua o ka luku ʻia ʻana o kona home e ka piʻi ʻilikai, ka nalu, a me ke kai nui. Akā, koi ʻo ia i ke kākoʻo kālā a me ke kākoʻo aupuni i hiki iā ia ke uku no ka noha ʻana ma kahi ʻē aʻe. ʻO Mowat, ʻo ia kekahi lālā o ka Molokaʻi Planning Commission a he lālā kaiāulu ʻeleu ʻo ia, a emi iho ana nō kona manaʻolana i ke kūʻai ʻia ʻana o kona home e hoʻopilikia ʻia nei. 

“E make wau ma mua o ka hana ʻia ʻana pēlā,” wahi āna. 

ʻO kekahi hōʻike pekelala i hoʻolaha ʻia ma Pepeluali o kēia makahiki, ʻo ia kai kuhi akula, e piʻi ana ka ʻilikai ma Hawaiʻi me he kapuaʻi lā ma ka makahiki 2050. Ua ʻimi akula nā mea noiʻi no Hawaiʻi, e hoʻopilikia ana ka hālana pinepine ʻana o ka wai i nā kūkulu he 6,500, nā ʻeka he 25,800, nā mile o ke alanui he 38, nā wahi pana he 550, a me ke kālā he $19 biliona o ka waiwai lewa ma o ka paeʻāina. 

E like me nā Kānaka Maoli ʻē aʻe e noho ana ma ka ʻāina hoʻokūʻonoʻono, ua komo ʻo Mowat i nā hālāwai like ʻole e pili ana i ka piʻi ʻilikai a me ka ʻaʻai kapakai. Ua walaʻau ʻo ia me nā mea hoʻolālā a me nā hoa kūkākūkā he nui, ua lawe maila ʻo ia i nā kiʻi a me ka palapala, a ua hana ʻo ia i nā mea i hiki ke hana ʻia no kona pakele ʻana i ka pilikia kai. 

“He ana manaʻo a he ana manaʻo hou aku, he hālāwai a he hālāwai hou aku,” wahi āna. “Akā, ʻaʻole lākou i kōkua iki maila iā mākou.”

ʻAʻole kū hoʻokahi ʻo Mowat ma ka noʻonoʻo ʻana i ka hana kūpono ke nānā ʻia ka pilikia a ka hoʻohuli aniau. 

Ma Molokaʻi, e like me nā mokupuni ʻē aʻe ma ka pae ʻāina, e nui ana nā wai hālana ma muli o nā ʻino nui loa, e ʻai ana ka nalu i ke alahele kapakai, e make ana ke koʻa i ka wai lepo mai uka mai, e ʻawaʻawa ana ke kai a nāwaliwali ka ʻōnaepuni — e laʻa ka pahu waiho wāwahie, ka lua wai pelapela, ke kūkulu hoʻopōʻaiapuni wai a me ka waihona ʻōpala — ke hoʻopilikia ʻia nei e ka wai hālana. 

Bridget Mowat stands outside her home on a Hawaiian homestead on Molokai.
Kū mai ʻo Bridget Mowat ma waho o kona home ma ka ʻāina hoʻokūʻonoʻono Hawaiʻi ma Molokaʻi.  Nathan Eagle/Civil Beat/2022

ʻAʻohe kulekele a ʻaʻohe kumu kālā ma ka pae mokuʻāina a me ka pae aupuni e hoʻokaʻawale ʻia no ka neʻe ʻana i nā kamaʻāina kapakai me nā hale e hoʻopilikia ʻia. Eia naʻe, e hoʻomāhuahua aʻe ana ka pilikia ma o ka hoʻomehana ʻia ʻana o ka honua. 

Wahi a ka noiʻi i hoʻopuka ʻia ma Ianuali e ka puke pai kumuhana ʻo Nature Climate Change, e kuhi ʻia, e piʻi ana ka pahiki o ka wai hālana he 26% ma ka makahiki 2050, a piʻi ka uku mai $32 biliona i $42 biliona ma loko o kēlā wā. ʻO ka ʻino nui a me nā pōpilikia aniau ma ʻAmelika mai ka makahiki 1980 a i 2022, he $2.2 kiliona ka uku a ke aupuni, e laʻa ka nui kālā he $6.4 biliona no nā kālā kumulilo ma Hawaiʻi, wahi a ka National Centers for Environmental Information. 

Ua ʻimi ka National Climate Assessment, ʻo nā kānaka me ka loaʻa kālā liʻiliʻi, nā kānaka e mālama pono ʻole ʻia, a me nā kānaka e hoʻokae ʻia, he liʻiliʻi ko lākou hiki ʻana ke holomua ma loko o ka ʻino nui a me nā hopena aniau, e laʻa ka piʻi ʻilikai. Eia naʻe, ʻo lākou nō nā kānaka e hoʻpilikia nui ʻia, wahi a ka noiʻi e kauoha ʻia e ka ʻahaʻōlelo lāhui, a ʻo ia kai hoʻolaha ʻia ma ka makahiki 2018. 

Ālai nā alāina he nui i nā ʻAmelika, keu hoʻi nā kānaka waiwai ʻole, i ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kālā pekelala no ka hoʻoneʻe hale ʻana i uka o nā pilikia kapakai, he hana i kapa ʻia he neʻehope e nānā ʻia. 

“ʻO kekahi o kēia mea, ʻo ia ka hoʻokele waiwai o ke ʻano a ke kūʻai ʻāina ʻana e holo aku ai ma kēia mau mokuʻāina waiwai nui.” — Adam Weintraub, Hawaiʻi Emergency Management Agency

He hoʻohuikau a me hoʻoluhi ka palapala e hoʻopihapiha ʻia. ʻO nā kaiāulu waiwai ʻole, nele pinepine lākou i nā mea hoʻolālā, nā mea kākau palapala haʻawina kālā, a me nā kānaka ʻē aʻe me ka ʻike lawelawe hana a me ka noʻeau e pono ai ka hoʻokele ʻana i ka pākulekele pohihihi. ʻAʻole hoʻokō nā kaiāulu ʻē aʻe i nā koina no ka ʻike ʻia ʻana he mākaukau lākou, a nele kekahi i nā kālā kaʻana uku e koi ʻia e nā polokalamu pekelala. 

ʻO nā kānaka he nui, ʻaʻole lākou ʻike i kahi e hoʻomaka aku ai. 

I loko nō o nā ālaina, ʻo ka Federal Emergency Management Agency ke kumu nui o ke aupuni no ke kālā hoʻēmi pōpilikia. ʻO kāna polokalamu kūʻai ʻokoʻa ma hope o ka wai hālana, e lilo ana ia mea i ko ke aupuni palapala ʻāina no ka hoʻoneʻe ʻana i nā kānaka ma waho o ka pilikia. 

ʻAʻole hemolele ia mea, ua hoʻohalahala nui ʻia ka polokalamu kūʻai ʻokoʻa i piha ai ʻekolu makahiki ma hope o ka ʻimi ʻia, koho lākou i nā kaiāulu waiwai ma kahi o nā kaiāulu waiwai ʻole. ʻO kahi noiʻi ma ka makahiki 2019 i alakaʻi ʻia e ka University of Miami, ua nānā ʻia nā kūʻai ʻokoʻa ʻaʻa a FEMA he 40,000 mai ka makahiki 1989 a i 2017. Ua hōʻike ʻia, ʻoi aku ka pinepine o ke kūʻai ʻokoʻa ʻana ma nā wahi kiwikā a waiwai ma kahi o nā kaiāulu waiwai ʻole a pā wale. 

Akā, ke hoʻohana ʻia nei ke kūʻai ʻokoʻa ʻana no ka neʻe hou ʻana i pili i ke aniau. Ua hōʻike ka noiʻi, ua hoʻohana ʻia ke kūʻai ʻana ma hope o ka wai hālana e hoʻokahi hapakolu o nā kalana, nā kūlanakauhale, a me nā māhele ʻāina. 

He koena ʻo Hawaiʻi. Ma o nā mokuʻāina 50, ʻo Hawaiʻi wale nō kai komo ʻole i ka polokalamu kūʻai ʻokoʻa a FEMA, wahi a ka ʻikepili a ke keʻena. 

Piʻi Ke Kumukūʻai, Nalowale Ke Kiaʻi ʻIa?

ʻO ka luna o ke keʻena hoʻēmi a ka Hawaiʻi Emergency Management Agency, ʻōlelo akula ʻo ia, aia ka ʻimi kālā pekelala i ka poʻe ma ka pae kamaʻāina no ka neʻe hou ʻana. 

“He koho ko kēlā me kēia kaiāulu i ka ʻimi a me ka ʻimi ʻole ʻana i nā haʻawina kālā pekelala ma o ke kalana,” wahi a Theresa Woznick, ʻo ia kai alakaʻi aku nei i ka māhele hoʻēmi o ka Hawaiʻi Emergency Management Agency

ʻŌlelo ʻo Luke Meyers, he kahu hoʻoponopono ʻo ia ma Hawaiʻi Emergency Management Agency, ua pili ke kumukūʻai pipiʻi ma ke kūʻai ʻāina i ko Hawaiʻi komo ʻole ʻana i loko o kā FEMA mau polokalamu kūʻai ʻokoʻa.  Courtesy: State of Hawaii

ʻŌlelo akula ʻo Woznick, ʻaʻole haʻi aku kāna keʻena i nā kaiāulu e noi kālā aku iā FEMA. E aho e hoʻomaka ma ka pae kamaʻāina, a laila, e holomua i ke kalana. He haku kula wai hālana ko kēlā me kēia kalana, a hiki i ke kanaka a me ke alakaʻi kaiāulu ke walaʻau me ia, wahi āna. 

No ke kumu o ka nele ʻana o nā kūʻai ʻole ʻana a FEMA ma Hawaiʻi nei, ua ʻōlelo akula ʻo Luke Meyers, ʻo ko Hawaiʻi waiwai paʻa pipiʻi loa kahi mea nui. 

“Me ke kumukūʻai o ka ʻāina ma ʻaneʻi nei, he pono kou ʻike ʻana i ka wai hālana nui loa me ka pinepine e loaʻa ai kekahi o nā mea no kekahi o kā FEMA polokalamu hoʻēmi wai hālana,” wahi a Meyers. 

Inā noho kekahi ma kahi kaiāulu e hālana pinepine ai ka wai, a hoʻāʻo ʻo ia i ke kūʻai ʻokoʻa ʻana mai, a lanakila paha ma kēlā hana, he pono kona ʻimi ʻana i wahi ʻē aʻe no ka noho ʻana, a he pilikia nō paha kēlā ma Hawaiʻi, ʻoiai, he mokuʻāina kēia i nele ai ka wahi noho. 

“ʻO kekahi o kēia mea, ʻo ia ka hoʻokele waiwai o ke ʻano a ke kūʻai ʻāina ʻana e holo aku ai ma kēia mau mokuʻāina waiwai nui. He hoihio ko laila, akā ʻaʻole paha ia he mea i maopopo i nā kānaka he nui i pilikia, no ka mea, he pono ko lākou ʻimi ʻana i wahi noho ʻē aʻe ma hope,” wahi a ka wahaʻōlelo ʻo Adam Weintraub no ke keʻena. 

Akā, ua hana ʻia nā kūʻai ʻokoʻoa ʻana a FEMA ma nā māhele ʻē aʻe o ʻAmelika I Hui Pū ʻIa me ka waiwai paʻa pipiʻi loa. 

“ʻAʻole maopopo i ka poʻe ke ʻano e noi aku ai i kēia, inā ʻaʻole maopopo iā lakou, ke kū nei kēia mea.” — Keani Rawlins-Fernandez, Maui City Council

Hōʻike nā palapala a FEMA, ua kūʻai ʻokoʻa maila ke keʻena i mau ʻāina pipiʻi loa ma ke kalana ʻo Santa Barbara ma Kaleponi no $14.5 miliona mai ka makahiki 1989 aku, wahi a ka ʻikepili pekelala i kālai ʻia e Columbia Journalism Investigations a me kona mau pakanā. ʻO ke kumukūʻai kūwaena o kahi home ma ke kalana ʻo Santa Barbara ma Iune, ʻo ia nō he $1 miliona, a ua kohu like ia me ko Hawaiʻi. 

Pēlā nō hoʻi me ke kalana ʻo Morris ma Nū ʻIeleke, he 48 ona kūʻai ʻokoʻa ʻana ma o ka makahiki 2017 a he 56 o ke kalana ʻo Somerset ma Nū ʻIeleke. ʻO ke kumukūʻai kūwaena no nā hale hoʻokahi ʻohana ma nā kālana ʻelua, ʻo ia nō he $700,000 ma Iune. 

ʻAʻole pēlā ma Hawaiʻi, no ke aha?

Bridget Mowat's homestead on the south shore of Molokai.
Ke hoʻopilikia ʻia nei nā ʻāina hoʻokūʻonoʻono Hawaiʻi ma kapakai hema o Molokaʻi e nā hopena hoʻohuli aniau.  Nathan Eagle/Civil Beat/2022

ʻO kekahi mau ʻona ʻāina kapakai ma Hawaiʻi, he mau kālā nō paha kā lākou no kā lākou hoʻoponopono ʻana ponoʻī i nā pilikia wai hālana. He mau hoʻolālā ʻinikua nō hoʻi paha ko lākou e hoʻomalu i ka hana hoʻēmi pilikia, a ʻo ke kāpae akula nō ia i ka pono e kūʻai ʻokoʻa ʻia e ke aupuni, wahi a Weintraub. 

Kuhi ʻo ia, ke kūʻai ʻokoʻa ke aupuni pekelala i ka ʻāina, hoʻolilo paʻa ʻia ka ʻāina i ka ʻona pekelala, keu hoʻi nā wahi ākea. No ka ʻāina e mālama ʻia no nā Kānaka Maoli, e kūʻēʻē loa ʻia aʻe ana nō paha kekahi hana e hoʻolilo ʻia ai kēlā mau ʻāina i ke aupuni pekelala. 

“ʻO ke kuanaʻike i ka ʻāina ma Hawaiʻi, e laʻa ka moʻolelo o ke kīpaku ʻana aku i ka poʻe ma ko lākou ʻāina, he mea ia e hōʻeuʻeu i ke kūʻē ʻana o ke kaiāulu i nā polokalamu aupuni no ke kūʻai ʻana a me ka neʻe ʻana,” wahi a Weintraub. 

Akā, ʻaʻole paha ʻike nā kaiāulu, he koho nā kūʻai ʻana a FEMA, a ʻo kēlā kekahi māhele o ka pilikia, wahi a Keani Rawlins-Fernandez, ʻo ia ka hope luna o ka Maui County Council. 

Ma kekahi wahi e nui ai ka pakeneka o nā Kānaka Maoli, e like me Molokaʻi, e aho ka Department of Hawaiian Home Lands e komo i kahi kūlana e ʻoi aʻe ai ka hana nui, wahi āna. 

ʻŌlelo akula ʻo Keani Rawlins-Fernandez, ʻo ia ka hope luna o ka Maui County Council, e aho ʻo DHHL e hoʻoponopono ʻokoʻa i kēia pilikia.  

“E aho ʻo DHHL e hoʻoponopono ʻokoʻa i kēia no ko Molokaʻi, ʻoiai, he mau kaiāulu ʻāina hoʻokūʻonoʻono ko kākou e hoʻopilikia ʻia nei e ka piʻi ʻilikai. A ʻo kēlā mau ʻāina kā lākou ʻāina e hoʻolimalima aku nei, no laila, e aho lākou e hoʻoholo i kēlā ʻano hana, ʻānō,” wahi a Rawlins-Fernandez. 

“ʻAʻole maopopo i ka poʻe ke ʻano e noi aku ai i kēia, inā ʻaʻole maopopo iā lākou, ke kū nei ia mea — ʻo kēia koho a me ka polokalamu. He pono ko lākou hoʻomaopopo ʻana i kēia i hiki iā lākou ke hoʻonohonoho, ke kūkākūkā, a ke noi i ke kūʻai ʻia ʻana i ka ʻāina,” wahi āna. 

E aho ʻo DHHL e hāʻawi i kēia me he koho lā i nā kānaka noho ʻāina kūʻonoʻono ma o kapakai — a he mau ʻelemākule ka nui o lākou — a ke lilo nei ko lākou ʻāina, wahi a Rawlins-Fernandez.

“He pono ka hoʻoponopono ʻana ma ka wā a lākou e ola nei,” wahi āna. 

Ko Hawaiʻi Mau Ālaina Alahele

Ke hana nei ka Department of Hawaiian Home Lands i kahi mau hana no ke kōkua ʻana i nā mea e hoʻokahu ʻia, e laʻa ʻo Mowat. 

Ke hoʻomākaukau nei kāna keʻena hoʻolālā i kahi hoʻolālā hoʻēmi ʻaʻai kapakai ma Molokaʻi Hema, a he hana ia i hoʻomaka ma ka makahiki 2015. Kuhi ʻia, e hoʻopau koke ʻia ke kākau mua ma hope o ko ke keʻena mālama ʻana i mau hālāwai kūkākūkā me nā kānaka noho ʻāina hoʻokūʻonoʻono i kēia kauwela, wahi a kahi hōʻike i ka Hawaiian Homes Commission i kēia makahiki na ka mea hoʻolālā ʻo Nancy McPherson. 

E pāhola ka hoʻolālā i pūkaʻina o nā pane a me ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i ka ʻaʻai kapakai, a me nā koho kulekele no ka hoʻēmi ʻana i ka pilikia a me ka paipai ʻole ʻana i ke kūkulu hou ʻana i nā wahi e hālana pinepine ai ka wai. ʻO kekahi o nā koho, ʻo ia ke kanu lāʻau, ke kūkulu paia, ke kau ʻeke one, a me ke kau palena.

The Hawaii sea level rise viewer, developed by the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System, shows the south shore of Molokai where Bridget Mowat and other Native Hawaiian homesteaders live under water with 3 feet of sea level rise.
ʻO ka mīkini ana piʻi ʻilikai no Hawaiʻi, ua haku ʻia e ka Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System, a hōʻike ia mīkini i kapakai hema o Molokaʻi, ʻo ia kahi a Bridget Mowat a me nā kānaka noho ʻāina hoʻokūʻonoʻono Kanaka Maoli e noho ana ma lalo o ke kai, ke piʻi ke kai he 3 kapuaʻi.  Hawaii Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Commission/2021

Ua hāʻawi ʻia ke keʻena i kahi haʻawina kala maiā National Coastal Resilience Fund no ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i kekahi o nā mea e hāpai ʻia ma ka hoʻolālā. He polokalamu ka waihona kālā o ka National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. 

Ma ka pae mokuʻāina, ke hoʻāʻo nei ʻo Hawaiʻi iā FEMA e hoʻokohu i kekahi o nā kānāwai i hiki iā Hawaiʻi ke loaʻa ke kālā pekelala no ka hoʻēmi pilikia ʻana.  

Ua hāpai ka Hawaiʻi Emergency Management Agency i ka manaʻo hopohopo e pili ana i ke ʻano a FEMA e wehewehe aku ai i kahi kaiāulu he “liʻiliʻi a ʻilihune,” ʻoiai, he koina ia i hiki ke helu ʻai i kahi kaona ma ka pae kiʻekiʻe o kā FEMA laʻana helu ʻai, a ʻo ka wehe ʻia akula nō ia o ka ʻīpuka i ka nui o ke kālā, wahi a Weintraub. 

Ma lalo o ke kānāwai pekelala, ʻaʻole hoʻokō ko Hawaiʻi mau kaiāulu a pau i kēia koina no ke kū ʻana me he kaiāulu liʻiliʻi a ʻilihune lā. Wehewehe ke kānāwai, he liʻiliʻi a ʻilihune kahi kaiāulu inā he 3,000 ona kānaka a emi mai, a ʻo ka loaʻa kālā ʻawelika o kēlā me kēia kanaka, ʻaʻole hiki ke pākela i 80% o ka loaʻa kālā o kēlā me kēia kanaka ma ka pae aupuni. 

“ʻAʻole like ia me nā mokuʻāina ʻē aʻe, he mau kalana ko Hawaiʻi, akā ʻaʻohe ona kūlanakauhale e hoʻohui ʻia, no laila, no nā mokupuni e liʻiliʻi ai ka nui kanaka e like me Molokaʻi, he 3,000 kanaka o laila a ʻoi,” wahi a FEMA ma ka pane ʻana i kahi noi maiā Civil Beat. 

Ālai ʻia hoʻi ʻo Hawaiʻi i nā ālaina alahele ma ke komo ʻana i ka polokalamu hou a FEMA i kapa ʻia ʻo Building Resilient Infrastructure and Communities, a i ʻole ʻo BRIC. 

He polokalamu nui ia ma ke aupuni i hoʻomaka i ka makahiki 2020 e kākoʻo ana i ka hoʻēmi pilikia. Ma kēlā makahiki, he $450 miliona o lākou no ke aupuni. Ma ka makahiki kālā 2021, ua nui aʻe kēlā helu i $919 miliona, wahi a ka Hawaiʻi Emergency Management Agency. 

Ma ko Hawaiʻi noi ʻana i $117 miliona ma ka makahiki 2020, ua hāʻawi ʻia he $600,000, wahi a Weintraub. Ma Nū ʻIeleke, ua hoʻāpono ʻia ia wahi no $58.5 miliona, wahi a kahi palapala hoʻopōkole ʻia no HI-EMA i hoʻomākaukau ʻia no ka Lunamakaʻāinana ʻAmelika ʻo Kai Kahele. 

ʻO kekahi kumu nui no ka hāʻawi ʻole ʻia ʻana o Hawaiʻi i ke kālā, ʻo ia nā kānāwai kūkulu kahi e hoʻokō ʻole i nā kānāwai aupuni. ʻO ka hoʻokahi hapakolu o ka pahiki lanakila no kekahi kanaka noi kālā, aia nō ia i ka hoʻokō ʻia ʻana o nā kānāwai kūkulu ma ka pae kamaʻāina a me ka loaʻa ʻana mai o kahi kaha maikaʻi mai ka polokalamu aupuni ʻo Building Code Effectiveness Grading Schedule. 

ʻO Hawaiʻi kekahi o ʻelima mokuʻāina e komo ʻole i ka polokalamu. 

Tires were places along the shoreline on Molokai in an effort to slow down the coastal erosion that's threatening Hawaiian homesteads.
Ua kau ʻia nā kaea ma o kapakai o Molokaʻi e hoʻolohi i ka ʻaʻai kapakai e hoʻopilikia nei i nā home.  Nathan Eagle/Civil Beat/2022

Ālai nā hoʻolālā kūikawā iā Hawaiʻi i ka hoʻokohu ʻana i nā kānāwai kūikawā, a hoʻolaha ʻia kēia mea ma kahi papa kuhikuhi manawa no ʻekolu makahiki. ʻElua makahiki o ke aupuni e hoʻokohu i nā kānāwai hou ma hope o ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka ʻōlelo pākuʻi. A laila, ʻelua makahiki o nā kalana e hoʻokohu iā lākou me nā loli ma ka pae kalana. Me nā mea i hoʻohui ʻia, hala ʻehā mau makahiki no ka mokuʻāina a me nā kalana e hoʻololi pākuʻi a e hoʻokohu i nā kānāwai, a he pōʻaiapuni kēia e ālai ʻia ai ʻo Hawaiʻi e hoʻokō i nā kānāwai kūkulu kūikawā, a he koʻikoʻi ia ma ka loaʻa ʻana o ka lei o ka lanakila ma kā FEMA polokalamu ʻo BRIC. 

ʻO kekahi kumu no ka lōʻihi o ko Hawaiʻi hoʻokohu ʻana i nā kānāwai kūkulu kūikawā penei, na nā ʻaʻa e hoʻoholo i ka ʻaha kānāwai kūkulu no ka mokuʻāina a me ke kalana. I loko nō o ka hana hoʻopaipai, ʻaʻole e hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ka ʻAhaʻōlelo i ke kālā no ka limahana e uku ʻia, wahi a HI-EMA. 

He nele ko ʻoneʻi i ka hoʻonaʻauao lehulehu ʻole a me ka hoʻopili ʻana ʻole i ke kaiāulu no ka waiwai o nā kānāwai kūkulu no kēia au, wahi a ke keʻena. Wehe nā kānāwai kūkulu no kēia au i ka ʻīpuka i ke kālā a FEMA, a mālama lākou i $13 kālā no kēlā me kēia kālā e hoʻopuka ʻia, wahi a ka National Institute for Building Standards. 

Ua mōakāka, he pono ka hoʻokohu ʻana i nā kānāwai kūkulu no kēia au ma ko Hawaiʻi hoʻoponopono ʻana i ka hopena a ka hoʻohuli aniau a me ka piʻi ʻilikai, wahi a ke keʻena. 

Akā, he pono ka uku ʻana o nā mea kūkulu. ʻO nā kānāwai kūkulu no kēia au e nānā ʻia ai ke kūpaʻa ʻana i ke aniau, hiki i ia mea ke hoʻonui i ke kumukūʻai ma ke kūkulu hou ʻana. Ma o kahi wā e nele ai ka hale a e pipiʻi ai ka ʻāina ma Hawaiʻi, he paʻakikī nō paha ka hoʻololi manaʻo. 

“ʻIke kākou, ke hana ʻia nā hana hoʻēmi a ke hoʻokō ʻia nā kūkulu i ke kānāwai kiʻekiʻe, e nui aʻe nō ka uku. No laila, he kōkua nō nā kumu a pau i hiki ke hoʻouna ʻia i kēia mau hui kānāwai kūkulu,” wahi a Meyers. 

ʻMa Mua O Ka Hala ʻAna O Ka Puʻulena’

ʻO nā ālaina pākulekele, e laʻa ke kānāwai kūkulu, ka palapala nui e hoʻopihapiha ʻia no ka noi ʻana, a me ka wehewehe ʻole ʻia ʻana o ia mau wahi me he kaiāulu liʻiliʻi a ʻilihune, he mau ālaina kēia e hoʻopilikia i nā kamaʻāina maʻamau o Hawaiʻi e ʻimi kōkua no ka lilo ʻana i mea kūpaʻa ma ka hoʻohuli aniau. 

Kuhi ʻia naʻe, e piholo ana nā kapakai o Hawaiʻi i mau kapuaʻi o ka wai ma ka hopena o ke kenekulia, a pā mai ka hopohopo a me ka ʻeleu ma nā wahi e like me Molokaʻi. 

Louis "Squeaky" Greenleaf stands at the edge of his property on his Hawaiian homestead on Molokai.
Kū ʻo Louis “Squeaky” Greenleaf ma ka palena o kona ʻāina hoʻokūʻonoʻono Hawaiʻi ma Molokaʻi. Hoʻomanaʻo ʻo ia, i mau makahiki aku nei, aia ke kai ma ʻō aku o ka pou e ʻoiʻoi ana ma kai.  Nathan Eagle/Civil Beat/2022

ʻŌlelo ʻo Louis “Squeaky” Greenleaf, ʻo ia ke noho kokoke iā Mowat, inā ʻaʻole ʻo ia e hoʻopihapiha hou i kona paia kai i kēlā me kēia makahiki, inā ʻaʻole e kū ana kona hale ma luna o ke kai. Ua hānau ʻia a hānai ʻia ʻo ia i ka hale ʻōmaʻomaʻo kuʻuna i kūkulu ʻia ma ka makahiki 1951, a hoʻomanaʻo ʻo ia i kahakai kahiko e pāhola loa ana i mua o ka ʻāina. Ke piʻi ke kai e like me ko kēlā mau mahina aku nei, poʻi ka nalu ma kāna paia kai, a hoʻopakī ʻia kona hale. 

ʻO ka hui hoʻopuka waiwai ʻole ʻo Sustainable Molokai, ke hoʻomohala aku nei ua hui nei i hoʻolālā nui no ka hoʻomaʻa a me ke kūpaʻa ʻana ma o ka hoʻohuli aniau a me ka piʻi ʻilikai, a kākoʻo ʻia kēia e kahi haʻawina kālā he $500,000 mai ka Maui City Council. ʻO ka pahuhopu, ʻo ia ka nānā pono ʻana i nā wahi a me ka ʻōnaepuni koʻikoʻi e pono ai ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i kapakai, ka hoʻokiʻekiʻe ʻana, a me ka hoʻoneʻe ʻana i uka. Ke hoʻomaka aku nei ka hui ma Molokaʻi, a manaʻolana ia hui e hoʻonui i ka hoʻolālā ʻana no Maui a me Lānaʻi. 

ʻO kā Mowat e hopohopo ana, ʻaʻole ia ka home ona a me kona mau hoa noho. He waihona ʻōpala a me kūkulu hoʻopōʻaiapuni wai, a me nā kūkulu lehulehu ʻē aʻe, i hiki ke luku ʻia e ke kai ma kona wā e ʻaʻai ana i kapakai — a he lua wai pelapela ko ka hapanui o nā hale, a hiki i ia wai pelapela ke kahe i kai. 

“Aia kēlā mau mea kahiko i laila, ma ka papahele,” wahi a Mowat. “Ua nui ko mākou mau pilikia ma ʻaneʻi. E hoʻoneʻe ʻia kēia mau mea ma mua o ka hala ʻana o ka Puʻulena.”

Ua kākoʻo ʻia kēia papahana e ka ʻOhana o Harry Nathaniel, Levani Lipton, ka ʻOhana Mar, a me Lisa Kleissner.

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