Kā ka luna hoʻoponopono nota: Unuhi ʻia na Ākea KahikinaClick here to read this article in English. 

Ma kekahi holoholo aku nei ma waho pono o ke kapakai ʻo Kona, aia ʻo Michael Nakachi lāua ʻo kāna keikikāne ʻo Kaikea e hoʻokū ana i ko lāua moku i ka lā kakahiaka ma waho o ke awa ʻo Honokōhau, a hai lāua i mau hoʻokupu ʻo ka lau kī i kai ma mua o ka ʻau ʻana aku i mua. 

ʻO ka makuakāne Nakachi, ua hai ʻo ia i ka manakō i wahī ʻia i ka lau kī i ʻō aku o ka ʻaoʻao. ʻO ka hua, no kekahi lāʻau mai ua hua nei ma ka hale o kona makuakāne. ʻO Ling ka makuakāne aliʻi, a ua hala aku nei ʻo ia ma Mei. 

Ka Ulana Pilina Badge Olelo Hawaii

Ua puehu nā mōhai ma ka ʻilikai. A ʻaʻohe i liʻuliʻu, ua puka mai kekahi mau manō a ʻau aku ua mau manō nei a puni nā lau, ʻoiai lākou e nīele ana i nā mea paʻupopo. A hala ma kahi o hoʻokahi minuke, ua nalowale iho lākou ma lalo o ka ʻilikai. 

ʻAʻole kēia launa ʻana he ūlialia. Ua kamaʻāina loa nā Nakachi i kēia kai, a maopopo leʻa iā lāua kahi e ʻimi ʻia ai nā iʻa. He mau mamo lāua a nā kahu manō, a ma kēia mau makahiki e holo ana lākou e hoʻopili hou ai i ka hoʻoilina a ko lāua ʻohana. 

E hoʻāno hou malū ana nā Nakachi i ka hana kuʻuna o ko lāua kūpuna me kekahi kaʻina hana ʻānō, ʻo ia hoʻi ka hana e hoʻokomo ʻia ai ka noiʻi nohili ma ke kai. Ua hana lāua pēlā, wahi a lāua, me ka ʻāpono ʻia ʻana e nā ʻohana kamaʻāina kaulana ma ka mokupuni. 

Oceanic Whitetip Shark Mike Kaike‘a Nakachi
Aia ʻo Michael Nakachi ma ka ʻaoʻao hema, a me kāna keikikāne e kilo ana i kai ma waho aʻe o KonaKuʻu Kauanoe/Civil Beat

“Hoʻāʻo nui māua e luʻu kai, ke hiki, no ka hoʻopili ʻana i nā iʻa ma o ka luʻu kini ea, ka luʻu kini ea ʻole, ka luʻu kini hoʻēa hou, nā ʻenehana like ʻole,” wahi a Michael Nakachi, i piha ka makahiki kanalimakūmālima iā ia, a he kāne i hānai ʻia ma Waimānalo. No Maui kona moʻokūʻauhau. “A no ka hapanui o nā Kānaka, e aho e hoʻopili aku i kēlā. Pehea kākou e hoʻohana ai i nā mea…e hōʻoia ʻia ai nā mea a nā kūpuna i ʻike ʻē aku ai?”

ʻAʻole naʻe i like me ke kaʻina hana haole, ʻo kā lākou kaʻina hana, he mea e kākoʻo ʻoʻoleʻa i ka hana “non-invasive.” ʻAʻohe kīlou, ka hei, a me ka hoʻopili ʻana i nā manō e pilikia ai lākou, a i ʻole nā hana e make ai lākou. 

Ma kahi o kēia, ʻo Kaikea, ʻo ia ka mea nāna e hele kula nei e loaʻa ai ke kēkelē laeoʻo no ka tropical conservation biology and environmental science ma ke Kulanui o Hawaiʻi ma Hilo. E noiʻi nohili ʻo ia i nā manō a me nā iʻa kai ʻē aʻe ma kai o Hawaiʻi Komohana ma o nā paʻi kiʻi a me nā paʻi wikiō he kaukani a ʻoi, ʻo ia ka mea āna e hana aku ai. E hoʻohana ana ʻo ia i kēia mau mea no kāna palapala laeoʻo āna e hoʻopau ai paha ma ka hopena o ka makahiki. Kūkulu ʻia ia mea i ka “encounter history” e hahai pono ai kekahi mau manō kikoʻī wahi a ka hiʻona, a me ka noho ʻana a me ka haʻalele ʻana i kahi maʻamau. 

ʻO kāna waihona kiʻi, he ʻelua terabytes ka nui o ka mea ma loko, a ua hoʻohui ʻia hoʻi ka moʻolelo o kā lākou hoʻomau keiki ʻana a me ka “fishery interactions.” ʻO ia hoʻi, he mea ia e hoʻopalapala i nā manawa e kīlou ʻia a hei ʻia ai kēia mau manō me nā mākau, nā aho, a me nā ʻenehana ʻē aʻe e hihia ai ka manō. Me ka hoʻohana ʻia ʻana o ka ʻenehana lolo uila, kuhi pono aʻe ʻo ia i ka nui o ka lāhui manō kamaʻāina, ma o ka nāna ʻana i nā manō kikoʻī āna e noiʻi aku nei. 

ʻO ke kilo ka mole o ka hana — “e aho e hana e like me ka makemake a me ka ʻoluʻolu o ka manō, ʻaʻole e like me ko ka mea noiʻi,” wahi a Kaikea, a ua like nō ia me ke kuleana a ke kahu manō ma ka nohona Hawaiʻi ma mua o ka hoʻolauna mua me ka poʻe haole. 

“ʻŌlelo ka poʻe, ‘ʻo ka ʻepekema i kūʻē i ka moʻomeheu,’ akā ma kekahi mau manawa he nui, ʻo ka moʻomeheu ka ʻepekema,” i ʻōlelo aku ai ʻo Kaikea ma kekahi holoholo ma ʻAukake. ʻO ke kahu manō, ʻo ia ka mālama manō ʻana. Ua kamaʻāina loa kekahi i kekahi. Me ka ʻole o kēia kamaʻāina, pehea e hōʻoia ai i ka manō, pehea e hea inoa ai, a pehea e ʻike leʻa i kona moʻokūʻauhau? ʻO ka haʻina, ʻo ia ka wā, ke kilo, a me ka maopopo.” 

E kaomi i nā kiʻiona e aʻo ai i nā mea ʻē aʻe e pilina i nā Nakachi a me ko lāua huakaʻi ma ke kapakai.

Ua paʻakikī naʻe ka hōʻike ʻana i kona kuanaʻike i ka ʻōnaehana ʻimi naʻauao kamaʻāina. ʻO ke kaʻina hana a nā Nakachi e hōʻihi ʻia ai ka moʻomeheu, he kūʻē pololei nō ia i ke kaʻina hana a ke Kulanui o Hawaiʻi ma ka noiʻi manō,  ʻo ia hoʻi he hana e ʻāpono ʻia ai ka hoʻopilikia ʻia a me ka make ʻana o nā manō.

Iā iā e hoʻomaka ana i i kāna kēkelē laeoʻo, ua kūlikeʻole ʻo ia i kāna luna kōmike, wahi āna. Ua hala kekahi mau makahiki ma mua o ka ʻimi ʻana i kōmike polopeka kūpono e kākoʻo ʻia ai kāna palapala laeoʻo. 

A ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa hoʻi nā Nakachi me nā mea noiʻi nui mai UH mai no nā kānāwai e ʻimi i nā pono e kiaʻi ʻia ai nā manō i nā kahakai mokuʻāina. ʻŌlelo lāua, he pono ka hoʻokomo ʻia ʻana o kēia mau palena ma hope o ka ʻike ʻana i nā pilikia nui ma ka hoʻopili manō ʻana a ke kanaka ma ko lāua huakaʻi maʻamau ʻana, a me ka ʻike ʻana i ke emi ʻana o nā poʻiiʻa kihi kiʻekiʻe ma ke kai a lāua e kilo ai. 

Akā, wahi a ka mea noiʻi, e laʻa ʻo Kim Holland, ʻo ia ka mea nāna i hoʻokumu i ka hui ʻo Shark Research Group at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology ma UH, e hoʻopilikia ana ua kānāwai hou nei i kā lākou hana ma o ka hana pākulekele mākoeā, a he mea e ālai ʻia ana ka holomua ʻana o ka noiʻi, a ʻo ka hōʻeha ʻia maila nō ia o ka manō no nā makahiki he nui. 

ʻŌlelo ka makua Nakachi, ʻaʻole maopopo i kēlā mau mea noiʻi ka loina kuʻuna o ka Hawaiʻi, ʻo ia hoʻi ke koʻikoʻi o ka noi a me ka ʻae ʻia ʻana ma mua o ke komo ʻana i kekahi wahi. 

“Ua hana lākou i nā mea maikaʻi he nui,” i kuhi aku ai ʻo Michael, akā “ʻaʻohe kūkākūkā. ʻAʻohe noi no ka hana ʻana. ʻAʻohe walohia i ka iʻa. Ua pili wale i ka noiʻi a me ka ʻikepili.”

ʻIke Kuʻuna, Noiʻi Kilo

Iā Kaikea e kālele ana i kāna noiʻi, mālama kona makuakāne i kona moʻokūʻauhau kahu manō ma ke ʻano he kiaʻi maluō kahakai kūpaʻa nui. 

He kanaka nui ʻo ia ma nā paio kamaʻāina no ka lawaiʻa hale hōʻikeʻike iʻa, a ua hoʻokomo ʻo ia i ka hana kānāwai i loaʻa ai ka hopena ma ka Supreme Court e kūʻē aku i ua hana nei ma Hawaiʻi Komohana. 

Ma kēia kau kupulau, ua hoʻokomo ʻo ia i kekahi hihia kānāwai ʻē aʻe ma ke ʻano he kanaka hoʻomau moʻomeheu. Na kēia hana e alakaʻi i mau palena e ʻoi aku ai ka ikaika no ka manō lālākea, he lāhui i luku ʻia ma kēlā mau kekeke i hala aku nei ma muli o ka lawaiʻa puni kālā. 

Ua kapa ʻia he “cruiser” e nā kānaka i kamaʻāina i kēia manō — he manō moana e holo aku i mau ana mamao loa, a e kāohi ʻia ka luhi e kona ʻēheu nui a me ka hahai māmā i ka iʻa pio e ʻau ana kokoke i ka ʻilikai. 

ʻO ka hiʻona liliuewe i ʻoi aku ai kēia lāhui manō ma ke ʻano he poʻiia kelakela ma ka wā i hala, ʻo ua hiʻona nei ka mea like e alakaʻi ana i ka lāhui i ka make loa ʻana. Hoʻomake lehulehu ʻia ka lālākea ma ke ʻano he “bycatch” ma ka lawaiʻa puni kālā, ua kīlou ʻia a hei ʻia ma nā aho lōʻihi loa a me nā ʻupena nui.

Ua hala ʻekolu haneli kaukani mau lālākea a ʻoi ma ke ʻano he bycatch ma nā ʻupena nui lehuhelu ma Hawaiʻi a me Sāmoa ʻAmelika mai ka makahiki 2013 aku, a ua manaʻo ʻia, ua emi iho ka nui o ka lāhui he 95% mai ka waena o ke kekeke 1990 aku, wahi a kekahi hoʻolaha mai ka hui kānāwai kumuloaʻa ʻole ʻo Earthjustice.

Nakachi Shark Kahu Mano
ʻAu ka lālākea ma kahakai Hawaiʻi ma ka paʻi kiʻi na Kaikea Nakachi, he ʻāpana o ka waihona ʻike nui āna i kūkulu aku ai no kāna noiʻi a me ka hana e mālama i ka hoʻoilina o kona ʻohana ma ke ʻana he kahu manō. Courtesy: Kaikea Nakachi

ʻO ko Nakachi hihia kānāwai i hala aku nei, i hana ʻia me Earthjustice lāua ʻo ke Conservation Council for Hawaii, ua hōʻeu ia mea i nā luna pekelala e ʻike a hoʻomaopopo i ka lawaiʻa ʻino ʻia ʻana o ka lālākea. I kēia manawa, ʻo Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council, a i ʻole ʻo Wespac, he makahiki ko lākou e haku i papahana e kiaʻi pono i ka lāhui lālākea. 

Kūkākūkā ʻo Wespac i ka pono no ka hana hoʻēmi ʻana ma ko lākou hālāwai nui i kēlā pule aku nei, ʻo ia hoʻi ʻo ka hoʻololi ʻana i nā ʻenehana a me nā kaʻina hana kūpono. 

“Manaʻo mākou, ʻo lākou he hui i hoihoi i ka ʻili o ke kai. ʻAʻole lākou e luʻu hohonu e hahai i ka mūheʻe,” i ʻōlelo aku ai ʻo Holland o ko UH Shark Research Group no ka lālākea. “ʻAʻole i mōakāka ko mākou hoʻomaopopo ʻana i ka laulā o ko lākou hoihoi a me ka hana.”

Me ka maʻamau, no ka mālama a me ke kiaʻi pono i nā lāhui manō, he pono ka hahai ʻia ʻana o lākou, wahi a Holland. A inā e hahai ʻia ana lākou, he pono ka hoʻopaʻa ʻia ʻana o ka mīkini hahai iā lākou. 

No kēlā hana, he pono ke kaʻina hana pilikia a nā Nakachi e kūʻē aku ai, keu hoʻi ke kīlou a me ka hopu ʻana i ka iʻa, hoʻohuli aku iā lākou me ka ʻōpū i luna e kūnāhihi ai lākou, a i kekahi mau manawa, ʻo ke kaha ʻana e hoʻokomo ʻia aku ai ka mīkini hahai i loko. 

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Holland, ma kahi o nā manō he mau haneli a kona hui i hoʻopaʻa ai i mīkini hahai ma kēlā mau kekeke i hala aku nei, ua hala nā manō he liʻiliʻi ma ke kaʻina hana. Ua wehewehe ʻo ia, ʻo ka hala ʻana he hana kākaʻikahi nui loa ia. 

“He hōʻihi nui ko mākou i nā iʻa…a ʻo ia nō paha ka mea e nalowale ana,” i ʻōlelo aku ai ʻo Holland. 

Ua hoʻopakele aku ke kaʻina hana i nā manō he mau kaukani, wahi a Holland. Iā lākou i hōʻoia ai i ka laulā loa o ka ʻau ʻana o ka manō niuhi, ua hoʻoulu ʻia ka mokuʻāina e hoʻoholo i mau kulekele e kūʻē aku i ka hoʻomake manō ma hope o ka nahu ʻia ʻana o ke kanaka. 

“He wahi ko ke pākaukau no ka ʻike kuʻuna, ka noiʻi kilo a nā Nakachi e paepae aku ana, a me ka ʻepekema ʻānō,” i ʻōlelo aku ai ʻo Holland. Akā, ʻaʻole hiki naʻe ke loaʻa mai ka ʻikepili ma o ka ʻike maka wale ʻana.”

Pane ʻo Kaikea, hiki i nā akeakamai haole ke haku a hana i kaʻina hana e hoʻēmi i ka hoʻopilikia manō a e hoʻonui i ka hōʻihi moʻomeheu no ka hahai manō ʻana, a e emi iho auaneʻi ka nui o ka hala ʻana o ka manō. 

ʻO ka hopu ʻana, wahi āna, ua ʻoi aku ka paʻakikī, ka luhi, a me ka pipiʻi ma ua mau hana nei. He laʻana kēia, hiki i nā kānaka noiʻi ke ʻō a i ʻole e hana i pū ‘ō e kī ʻia ai ka mīkini hahai i loko o ka manō me ke kīlou ʻole iā lākou. E hemahema ana nō paha kekahi o ka hoʻāʻo, a e nalowale ana hoʻi kekahi o ka mīkini hahai pipiʻi, akā he hana ia i ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi no ke olakino a me ka pono o nā manō, wahi āna. 

ʻO kona mau kilo ma kona ʻauʻau ʻana i ka moana me nā lāhui iʻa ʻē aʻe, e laʻa ka niuhi, he pilikia ana nō paha ko laila, akā ʻōlelo naʻe ʻo Kaikea, ua pale ʻia kēia pilikia i kona ʻike a me kāna i ʻalo ai.

“He palena ʻole ko ʻoneʻi ke haku ʻia kekahi mea hou,” wahi a Kaikea. “He mau manaʻo a he mau koho like ʻole ko laila, akā ma kahi o ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana i ka manaʻo lehulehu e maʻalahi ai a e ʻuʻuku ai ka hana, he pono ka haku ʻana i mau hana ʻokoʻa, a e kau nō i ka pono o nā manō i luna o nā mea ʻē aʻe ma kā lākou noiʻi.”

He Kaʻina Hana Hoʻopau Iʻa

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Kaikea, ua launa aku ʻo ia me kekahi mau kuanaʻike like ma kona wā e noiʻi ana i ka ʻepekema kai ma ke ʻano he haumāna laepua ma Florida, kahi a lākou e manaʻo ai, inā loaʻa kekahi manō i hala ma ka ʻupena o ke kanaka noiʻi, he wahi mea ana ia i hiki ke noiʻi ʻia. 

Ma hope o kona hemo kula a me ka hoʻi ʻana i kahakai Hawaiʻi, “ʻo ka hoʻololi nui loa, ʻaʻole ia ke kumu, akā, ʻo ia ka hoʻololi ʻia ʻana o ka poʻe e hoʻohana ana i ke kai a me ke ʻano o kā lākou hana.”

ʻŌlelo nā Nakachi, ua hopohopo lāua i ka māhuahua ʻana o ka launa manō ʻana e holo ana ma ka moana, kahi a nā kānaka ʻau moku e palu pinepine ai i nā iʻa i ka ʻilikai a e hoʻololi i ko lākou ʻano maʻamau i hiki i nā malihini ke paʻi kiʻi no kā lākou social media. 

Hopohopo pū hoʻi lāua i nā launa ʻē aʻe e hoʻopilikia i nā iʻa, a me ka ʻuʻuku loa o ka nui o nā mākaʻi mai ko ka mokuʻāina Department of Land and Natural Resources i hiki ke nānā a mālama i ke kapakai holoʻokoʻa o Hawaiʻi Komohana. 

Ma ko lāua huakaʻi ma ʻAukake, ua holo kai nā Nakachi i wahi i kaulana i ka lehulehu no nā manō ʻo grey reef shark. I laila ʻē kekahi lawaiʻa ʻōpelu i malihini i kēlā wahi. 

Holoholo nā lawaiʻa ʻōpelu loea i mau wahi ʻē aʻe, no ka mea, ʻaʻole lākou makemake e kiaʻi i ka iʻa ma ka ʻupena i nā manō e ʻau ana, wahi a lāua. Iā nā Nakachi e hiki aku ana, ua haʻalele koke ka lawaiʻa. 

Iā Kaikea e luʻu ana i kai, ʻaʻohe manō e ʻau ana ma kēlā wahi maʻamau, ʻoiai paha he ʻau kō nui ko lalo o ke kai. 

Akā nō naʻe, ua ʻike ʻo Kaikea i hoʻokahi manō ʻōpiopio e kapalili a e make ana ma ka papakū. ʻO ka mea i hana ʻia i ka manō, he mea i hana aku nei iā iā, wahi āna. 

Hoʻohuoi lāua, ua pili ua hana nei i ka lawaiʻa, ʻo ia ka mea i waiho aku i ka manō i kona wā e pilikia ana, a ʻaʻole hiki iā ia ke ola hou. Ua napenape ka ʻōpū keʻokeʻo, a kūʻokoʻa ia ma ka pōhaku uliuli o ka papakū. ʻAʻole i hiki iā Kaikea ke luʻu iho ma muli o ke kō nui o ke kai no ka nānā pono ʻana aku.

Ua hoʻopilikia kēlā hōʻike i nā Nakachi no ke koina o ka lā. Ua mihi ʻo Michael i ka lawe ʻole ʻana i nā kini ea a me ka mea pono no ka luʻu kai e kākoʻo iā lāua i ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i ka mea i hana ʻia. 

“He kaumaha nui ke mahalo ʻia aku ʻo Kanaloa pēlā,” wahi a Nakachi e kuhi ana iā Kanaloa, ke akua kuʻuna o ke kai. “He kaʻina hana hoʻopau iʻa.”

Ka ʻImi A Loaʻa O Ka Hoʻoilina

Hoʻāʻo nā Nakachi e huakaʻi a nānā i luna a i lalo o ke kapakai i mau manawa ma kēlā me kēia pule. Hiki iā lāua ke hele pinepine pēlā, wahi a Michael Nakachi, ma muli o Moana Ohana, he hui moku pilikino āna e kōkua aku ai i ka hoʻoholo ʻana. 

Kākoʻo kālā nā lālā i ka hana moʻomeheu, a hāʻawi ke kumu ʻoihana iā māua i ka hiki ʻana ke hana a mālama kuleana, wahi āna. 

Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Nakachi, ʻaʻole i ʻike lākou ʻo kona ʻohana i ko lākou moʻokūʻauhau kahu manō a hiki i ka haʻi ʻana a ka hoa hānau o kona kupunawahine iā lākou, ʻo ia hoʻi ʻo Pilahi Paki, he kupuna i kaulana i ke kākau ʻana iā Hawaii’s Aloha Spirit Law, ma kekahi hoʻohui ʻohana ma ʻAiea ma ka mahele mua o ke kekeke 1970. 

Ua ʻākoakoa mai lākou ma hope o ko kona makuakāne ʻaneʻane nalowale ʻana ma kai, ʻo Ling kona inoa. Ua hoʻopakele ʻia lāua o kekahi lālā ʻohana ʻē aʻe ma hope o ka hala ʻana o kanakolu mau hola, ma hope o ka hoʻokahuli ʻia ʻana o ko lāua moku lawaiʻa e ke kai pikipikiʻō ʻo Kaiwi ma ʻō aku o Oʻahu, wahi a Nakachi. Ua hala kekahi lālā ʻohana ʻē aʻe ma ke kai. 

Ua hala loa ʻo Ling Nakachi ma Mei. Ua nalowale ʻo ia ma ke kai ma ke kekeke 1970, a na kēlā mea e alakaʻi i ka ʻohana e aʻo hou i ko lākou moʻolelo piha. Courtesy: Michael Nakachi

Wahi a Nakachi, ua nīnau aku ʻo Paki iā Ling inā ua ʻike ʻo ia i mau manō e pili kokoke ana iā lāua ma ke kai, a ua pane ʻo ia, iā lāua e ʻauana ana ma ka ʻilikai, ua maopopo iā ia kekahi kū ʻana o kahi mea kokoke e mālie ai ka naʻau, a ua ʻike hoʻi ʻo ia i kekahi manō nui e ʻau aku ana kokoke iā lāua. 

“Ua uē nui koke ʻo ia,” i haʻi moʻolelo aku ai ʻo Nakachi e pili ana iā Paki ma ka ʻākoakoa ʻohana ʻana. “He mihi ko ʻoneʻi i koʻu kū ʻole ʻana ma laila a me ka nele o koʻu wehewehe ʻole ʻana iā ʻoukou e pili ana iā kākou iho a me ka piko a kākou e hoʻi aku ai.” 

Ua haʻi aku ʻo ia i ko lākou pilina ʻohana nui i nā iʻa, a me ka moʻokūʻauhau o ke kahu manō mai Maui mai. Ua nalowale ka hapanui o kēlā hoʻoilina i ka hala ʻana o ko Michael kupunawahine, ʻo ia ka mea nāna i hala ma ka wā a Ling e kamaliʻi ana, wahi āna. 

I kēia wā ʻānō, kūlia nā Nakachi e hoʻomaopopo leʻa i ka mea e pono ai ke kahu manō i kēia wā e holo nei. ʻO kāna kaikamahine ʻo ʻAlohi, he haumāna laeʻula ʻo ia e noiʻi ana i ke coastal marine management. 

“Noʻu iho, e hoʻokomo wau i kēlā wahi ma kēlā me kēia manawa e aʻo hou ʻia ai kēlā ʻike,” i ʻōlelo aku ai ʻo Kaikea. 

“Ke hoʻāʻo nei mākou e haku i ko mākou moʻolelo ponoʻī me ko kākou hoʻomaopopo ʻana i kēia wahi, a hiki wale nō ke loaʻa mai kēlā ma o ke kuʻupau ʻana o ka hana a me ka manawa.”

Ua kākoʻo ʻia kēia papahana e ko Harry Nathaniel ʻOhana, Levani Lipton, lāua ʻo Lisa Kleissner.

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